were, according to experts, domesticated between 12,000 and 25,000 years ago–and that all dogs evolved from the wolf. Since then, humans have selectively bred more than 400 breeds, ranging in size from four-pound teacup poodles to Irish wolfhounds, whose three-foot stature earns them the title of tallest canine. But the most popular pooches are non-pedigree–the one-of-a-kind dogs known as mixed-breeds.
Premium-quality dry food provides a well-balanced diet for adult dogs and may be mixed with water, broth or canned food. Your dog may enjoy cottage cheese, cooked egg, fruits and vegetables, but these additions should not total more than ten percent of his daily food intake. It is smart to limit “people food,” however, because it can result in vitamin and mineral imbalances, bone and teeth problems and may cause very picky eating habits and obesity.
Supervised fun and games will satisfy many of your pet’s instinctual urges to dig, herd, chew, retrieve and chase. Individual exercise needs vary based on breed or breed mix, sex, age and level of health–but a couple of walks around the block every day and ten minutes in the backyard probably won’t cut it.
If your dog is a 6- to 18-month adolescent, or is an active breed or mixed-breed from the sporting, herding, hound or terrier groups, exercise requirements will be relatively high.
This, along with an ID tag and implanted microchip or tattoo, can help secure your dog’s return should he become lost.
Females should be spayed–the removal of the ovaries and uterus–and males neutered–removal of the testicles–by six months of age.
Puppies should be vaccinated with a combination vaccine (called a “5-in-1”) at two, three and four months of age, and then once annually.
This vaccine protects the puppy from distemper, hepatitis, leptospirosis, parvovirus, and parainfluenza. A puppy’s vaccination program cannot be finished before four months of age. There are a variety of vaccines that may or may not be appropriate for your pet. Your veterinarian can tell you about them.
You can help keep your dog clean and reduce shedding with frequent brushing. Check for fleas and ticks during warm weather.
were domesticated sometime between 4,000 and 8,000 years ago, in Africa and the Middle East. Small wild cats started hanging out where humans stored their grain. When humans saw cats up close and personal, they began to admire felines for their beauty and grace.
There are many different breeds of cats–from the hairless Sphinx to the fluffy Persian. But the most popular felines of all are non-pedigree–that includes brown tabbies, black-and-orange tortoiseshells, all-black cats with long hair, striped cats with white socks and everything in between.
You can either feed specific meals, throwing away any leftover canned food after 30 minutes, or keep dry food available at all times. Although cat owners of old were told to give their pets a saucer of milk, cats do not easily digest cow’s milk. Treats are yummy for cats, but don’t go overboard. Some cats like fresh fruits and vegetables, like broccoli, corn or cantaloupe. Offer these once in awhile.
Cats need to scratch! When a cat scratches, the old outer nail sheath is pulled off and the sharp, smooth claws underneath are exposed. Cutting your cat’s nails every two to three weeks will keep them relatively blunt and less likely to harm the arms of both humans and furniture.
Provide your cat with a sturdy scratching post, at least three feet high, which will allow them to stretch completely when scratching. Many cats also like scratching pads. A sprinkle of catnip once or twice a month will keep your cat interested in her post or pad.
Female cats should be spayed and male cats neutered by six months of age. Neutering a male can prevent urine spraying, decrease the urge to escape outside and reduce fighting between males. Spaying a female helps prevent breast cancer, which is usually fatal.
Kittens should be vaccinated with a combination vaccine (called a “3 in 1”) at 2, 3 and 4 months of age, and then annually. This vaccine protects cats from panleukopenia also called feline distemper. There is a vaccine available for feline leukemia virus. This is one of the two immune system viruses that infect cats. The other is feline immunodeficiency virus. There is no vaccine available for FIV. Cats can be infected with either virus for months, even years, without any indication that they are carrying a fatal virus. All cats should be tested for these viruses.
Building Winter Cat Shelters
Bottle Feeding Orphaned Kittens
TNR Certification Workshop
Taming Feral Kittens for Adoption